Osteopenia can be diagnosed using a simple test that measures your bone mineral density. As people age, their bone mineral density lessens. If it gets very low, a person is diagnosed with osteoporosis. If it gets somewhat low, they are said to have osteopenia. There are standard screening guidelines for who should get a bone mineral density scan as well as known risk factors for both osteoporosis and osteopenia. Anyone concerned about the health of their bones should read the basics on osteopenia.